Download A Clinician's Guide to Statistics and Epidemiology in Mental by S. Nassir Ghaemi PDF

By S. Nassir Ghaemi

Available and clinically suitable, A Clinician's consultant to stats and Epidemiology in psychological well-being describes statistical ideas in simple English with minimum mathematical content material, making it excellent for the busy healthcare professional. utilizing transparent language in favour of complicated terminology, barriers of statistical options are emphasised, in addition to the significance of interpretation - in place of 'number-crunching' - in research. Uniquely for a textual content of this sort, there's huge assurance of causation and the conceptual, philosophical and political components concerned, with forthright dialogue of the pharmaceutical industry's function in psychiatric study. through making a better knowing of the area of analysis, this publication empowers wellbeing and fitness execs to make their very own judgments on which information to think - and why.

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Additional info for A Clinician's Guide to Statistics and Epidemiology in Mental Health: Measuring Truth and Uncertainty

Example text

Background The concept of the p-value comes from Ronald Fisher, in his work on randomization of crops for agriculture. P-values are, in effect, a statistical attempt to solve the philosophical problem called the problem of induction (see Chapter 10). If we observe something, we can never be 100% absolutely certain that what we have observed actually happened. It is possible that other things influenced what we observed (confounding bias; this is perhaps the most important source of error in induction), and it is possible that we observed something that occurred by chance.

In either case, those other variables are important to assess so that we can get a more valid understanding of the relationship between the exposures of interest and outcomes. Put another way, there is no way that a simple one-to-one comparison (as in univariate analyses) gives us a valid picture of what is really happening in observational experience. Both confounding bias and EM occur a lot, and they need to be assessed in statistical analyses. Measurement bias The other major type of bias, less important than confounding, is measurement bias.

Drug vs. placebo) was received. If the guesses are random, then one can conclude that blinding was successful; if the guesses correlate with the actual treatments given, then potential measurement bias can be present. This matter is rarely studied. , 1997). The investigators guessed alprazolam correctly in 82% of cases and they guessed placebo correctly in 78% of cases. Patients guessed correctly in 73% and 70% of cases respectively. The main predictor of correct guessing was presence of side effects.

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