Download A Companion to Kant (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy) by Graham Bird PDF

By Graham Bird

This Companion offers an authoritative survey of the full variety of Kant’s paintings, giving readers an idea of its monstrous scope, its remarkable fulfillment, and its carrying on with skill to generate philosophical interest.* Written by way of a world forged of students* Covers the entire significant works of the severe philosophy, in addition to the pre-critical works* matters coated variety from arithmetic and philosophy of technology, via epistemology and metaphysics, to ethical and political philosophy

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The ideal “realm of ends” is therefore to receive earthly reality in the form of a “people of God” under moral laws, who are to unite freely (not in the form of a coercive state) and universally (not as an ecclesiastical organization limited by creeds and scriptural traditions). The essence of religion for Kant consists in recognizing the duties of rational morality as commanded by God, and in joining with others to promote collectively the highest good for the world. It is in this free form of religious association, and not the coercive political state, that Kant ultimately places his hopes for the moral improvement of the human species in human history.

The triumph of celestial mechanics – one of the engines of the Enlightenment – underscored the power of Newton’s rigorous methods and sidelined conceptual speculations. Newton’s famous dictum, “I feign no hypotheses,” in the Principia (1686) discouraged speculation on the causes of gravity and on the puzzle of action at a distance (the puzzle of how gravity travels through empty space). For Newton and his followers, studies of force were to be restricted to what can be observed, quantified, and tested.

Kant’s indifference towards his teacher appears to 35 ACTC02 35 19/5/06, 2:19 PM martin schönfeld have been mirrored by Knutzen’s impression of his student. Knutzen never mentions Kant when writing about students he was proud of, and the students he favored, Friedrich Buck (1722–86) and Johann Weitenkampf (b. 1726), were Kant’s enemies. Knutzen, a Pietist, was an opponent of Leibniz and Wolff. Kant, in his book, criticizes Leibniz and Wolff too, but in a way that sharpens their approach. Knutzen criticized Leibniz and Wolff for having been too radical, but Kant criticized Leibniz and Wolff for not having been radical enough.

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