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By M. A. Mohamed Salih

The authors of this assortment interrogate the political overall healthiness of African political events and review the speculation and perform of social gathering services, ideology and constitution. via clean research utilizing a number of case reports, they query the democratic credentials of African political events and suggest new equipment for attaining inclusive, broad-based illustration. topics contain the evolution and institutionalisation of African political events; the original historic, political and social situations that formed their constructions and functions.Morten Bøås within the governance trajectory, the authors query the connection among African political events and govt; political events and illustration; political events and electoral platforms; and political events and parliament. Case experiences contain Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe and so on.

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3 per cent. Similarly in Poland after Lech Walesa won a landslide in 1990, the Democratic Left Alliance won the largest number of seats in the legislative elections of 1993, winning 171 out of 460, and became the dominant party in the coalition that governed the country after those elections (Smolar, 1994; the election results in the postsocialist period in all these countries can be found in Election Watch, which is carried regularly by the Journal of Democracy). In Romania, it was the leadership of the former Communist Party that dominated the political scene after the overthrow and the execution of Nicolae Ceausescu, after having led the movement to remove him (Tismaneanu and Tudoran, 1993).

In fact most Nigerians attributed the palace military coup that brought General Babangida to power in August 1985, and his adherence to the World-Bank-sponsored Structural Adjustment Programmes, to the steep decline in the Nigerian economy. Ihonvbere (1994; see also Jega, 2000; Olukoshi, 1993) sums up the association between the pains and cost of failed adjustment and political contradictions in Nigeria. He argues that, ‘economic underdevelopment, foreign domination and exploitation, rural decay and urban dislocation, unemployment, inflation, poverty, inequality, institutional fragility, and other manifestations of backwardness in oil-rich Nigeria are prerequisites of political contradictions and inequalities in the distribution of political power in the country’ (Ihonvbere, 1994, p.

In the meantime, we hope also that our efforts, despite the relatively sparse material on African political parties elsewhere, will spark an interest in others in this unique and fascinating phenomenon. BIBLIOGRAPHY Amnesty International (1997) Botswana: Country Report. htm. Salih 01 chaps 23/12/02 17:10 Page 31 INTRODUCTION 31 Amnesty International Report (1998) AFR 49/01/98. Bauer, G. (1999) ‘Challenges of Democratic Consolidation in Namibia’, in R. ) State, Conflict and Democracy in Africa. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

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