Download Against Proclus On the Eternity of the World 1-5 (Ancient by Philoponus PDF

By Philoponus

This can be a post-Aristotelian Greek philosophical textual content, written at a vital second within the defeat of paganism through Christianity, advert 529, while the Emperor Justinian closed the pagan Neoplatonist college in Athens. Philoponus in Alexandria used to be an excellent Christian thinker, steeped in Neoplatanism, who grew to become the pagans' rules opposed to them. the following he assaults the main religious of the sooner Athenian pagan philosophers, Proclus, protecting the distinctively Christian view that the universe had a starting opposed to Proclus' eighteen arguments on the contrary, that are mentioned in eighteen chapters. Chapters 1-5 are translated during this quantity.

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11 For the claim that He is unable to do what He wishes deserves ridicule, because if He were able sometimes and not able at others, then it would follow that He admits of change and affection. For His losing the ability would be the reason for His receiving an affection. Whatever alters from not being able to being able has changed, because both power12 and lack of power belong to [the category of] quality, and change is alteration of quality. If He is everlastingly able 34,3 5 10 15 35,1 20 5 Chapter 1, Section 2 to create, and everlastingly wishes to create, then it is absolutely necessary that He everlastingly creates and that the universe is everlastingly created, and that the world is everlastingly existent (mawjûdan), just as the Creator13 is everlastingly creating.

The unity of providence], remaining stationary and undivided in [its] unity, also knows all things in this same mode, and not only man and sun and everything whatsoever of that kind, but also each particular thing. 136 And the philosopher Plotinus in On the Intelligibles, or, On the Good137 says similar things about the creative and providential power of God in these words: Nevertheless, if it is necessary that each activity [of his] should not be imperfect and it is not right to think of anything belonging to God as other than whole and entire, all things must be present in anything of his.

If He wants all things to be like Himself, then He is able to make all things like Himself, since He is the ruler and lord of all things. But if He wants to make all things like Himself, and He is able to make all things like Himself, then He makes them everlastingly. For, everything that does not make refrains from making either because it does not wish to make or because it is unable to make – if it is susceptible to one of these two. So if the Creator – may He be exalted10 – makes the world from His generosity, He makes it everlastingly.

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