By A. Hadenius
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Extra info for American Exceptionalism Revisited: US Political Development in Comparative Perspective
By the following year, the social/GNP ratio had risen to almost 16 percent (representing an increase of about 40 percent in five years). In the case of military spending—on which we shall now focus— developments in the same period were not at all dramatic. 4). During the years in between, however, there had been some interesting shifts up and down. 4 Total federal expenditures (FE) as a percentage of GNP, and social expenditures (Soc) and military expenditures (Mil) as a percentage of GNP and FE, 1980–2010.
Yet in other ways the United States stands out. Despite the relative downsizing of its spending on defense, the United States still devotes a considerably larger share of its resources—whether measured against GNP or against overall government expenditures—to the military sector than does almost any comparable country. 5 Nonetheless, as we have seen, the social side has become dominant in the United States as well, in line with the OECD pattern. Compared to the OECD average, however, the United States spends more public resources on health care and education.
This division of powers and responsibilities between the federal government and the territorial subunits must furthermore be of an enduring, constitutionally regulated character. A State O ut of Sight 37 As a consequence of this division, there are legislative and executive organs (that is, some kind of parliament and cabinet) on both levels. At the central level, as a rule, the legislative organ has two separate chambers—wherein one represents the whole citizenry and the other serves the interests of the subunits.